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OCTOBER 1, 1991:

Thurgood Marshall, the first Black to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, retired after twenty-three years.


OCTOBER 2, 1971:

Soul Train created by Don Cornelius, aired in syndication. Soul Train was a music-dance show that included live performances mainly from Rhythm and Blues, soul, dance/pop, and hip-hop artists.



OCTOBER 3, 1949:

Jesse B. Blayton Sr. opened the first Black-owned radio station WERD.


OCTOBER 4, 1951:

Henrietta Lacks passed away from Cervical Cancer. However, her cells that were taken has been used to study the effects of toxins, drugs, hormones and viruses on the growth of cancer cells without experimenting on humans.

OCTOBER 5, 1995:

Barbara Jordan gave her acceptance speech as recipient of the Sylvanus Thayer Award. 


OCTOBER 6, 1993:

Mae C. Jemison was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.



OCTOBER 7, 1993:

Toni Morrison is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. She was the first Black woman to earn the honor.


OCTOBER 8, 2004:

Wangari Muta Maathai became the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.



OCTOBER 9, 1975:

Frank Robinson became Major League BAseball's first African-American field manager.



OCTOBER 10, 1899:

Isaac R. Johnson patented his invention of the bicycle frame.



OCTOBER 11, 1877:

Alexander Miles received a patent for his invention of the electric elevator.


OCTOBER 12, 1972:

Forty-six sailors were injured in a race riot involving more than 100 sailors on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk.


OCTOBER 13, 1792:

Construction on the white house began. The government paid white owners so their enslaved men could help build The White House. In addition to those enslaved men, free Blacks were also enlisted to work alongside White locals and Europeans.



OCTOBER 14, 1916:

Despite being one of Rutgers best players, sophomore Paul Robeson was excluded from the football team. Washington and Lee University refused to play against a Black player, so Rutgers pulled Robeson from the game.


OCTOBER 15, 1966:

The Black Panther Party for Self Defense was founded.


OCTOBER 16, 1968:

U.S. 200-meter sprint medalists Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who won the gold and bronze, respectively, raised their black-gloved fists in a Black power salute during the playing of the national anthem at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. They were suspended for politicizing the Olympics and sent home.



OCTOBER 17, 1969:

Clifford Wharton, Jr. was elected the first African-American president of Michigan State University. he began his term in January of 1970.

OCTOBER 18, 1968:

Bob Beamon set records at the Mexico City Olympics. he became the first 29-foot long jumper.



OCTOBER 19, 1944:

The Navy announced that Black women would be admitted.


OCTOBER 20, 1942:

The Southern Conference on Race Relations (SCRR) was held in Durham, North Carolina with more than 50 prominent African American leaders of the South. They discussed solutions for inter-racial cooperation.



OCTOBER 21, 1989:

Bertram M. Lee and Peter C.B. Bynoe became the first African-American owners of a professional basketball team.


OCTOBER 22, 1953:

Dr. Clarence Greene became the first African American certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery.

OCTOBER 23, 1947:

The NAACP sent to the United nations a document titled "An Appeal to the World: A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress."



OCTOBER 24, 1959:

Wilt Chamberlain played in his first NBA game with the Philadelphia Warriors beginning a record streak of 1,045 consecutive games (without disqualification). HIs record was broken in 1991 by Moses Malone.



OCTOBER 25, 1997:

Approximately 750,000 Black women came to The Million Woman March, held in Philadelphia on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. This March was inspired by the Million Man March that took place on October 16, 1995.


OCTOBER 26, 1968:

George Foreman became a member of the US Olympic team just three years after he began boxing. He competed in the the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. 



OCTOBER 27, 1891:

Philip B. Downing reived a patent for the Street Letter Box improvement/invention.


OCTOBER 28, 1997:

Violet Palmer, along with Dee Kanter, was hired as a full-time NBA referee. This was the first time, in major pro sports in the United States, that females officiated regualr-season games in an all-male league. 


OCTOBER 29, 1969:

The Supreme Court ruled that school districts must end segregation "now and hereafter". This ruling came approximately fifteen years after Brown vs. Board of Education.


OCTOBER 30, 1794:

Muhammad Ali became the heavyweight champion of the world for the second time. He knocked out George Foreman in the eight round of a match in Kinshasa, Zaire.



OCTOBER 31, 1950:

Earl Lloyd became the first African American to play in an NBA game when he took the court in the season opener for the Washington Capitols. 


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